In both regions, bigleaf periwinkle is most problematic to managers in riparian or canyonbottom habitats (see Impacts). Dominant trees along the stream included Arizona alder (Alnus oblongifolia), Arizona sycamore (P. wrightii), and Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii). Award-winning Vinca major 'Variegata' (Big Periwinkle) is an evergreen, mat-forming, subshrub or perennial with long prostrate rooting stems covered with ivory-margined, sea green leaves.
However, dense mats of
Photo by Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org. Common periwinkle occurs in forests or "wooded" areas [29,37,45,57,60,78], including both open ([42,100,115], review by ) and closed (, reviews by [72,81]) forest. Quantitative data on the rate of spread of Vinca are not available from the literature. A number of sources suggest that periwinkles may be controlled by raising stolons with a rake and mowing (reviews by [7,81]). managers in riparian and wetland areas of the south and central coasts of California .
across (5 cm), appear in mid-spring and continue to flower intermittently throughout summer into fall. In laboratory studies, common periwinkle seeds exhibited an "extended dormancy period"; 70% germination occurred after 30 days using a combination of acid scarification and 90-day cold stratification. A study from Yosemite National Park, California, documents bigleaf periwinkle occurring at very low abundance in a single plot that burned sometime between 1930 and 1999. In North America, periwinkles are found in plant communities that historically experienced long (e.g., northern hardwood, southern floodplain forests) and short (e.g., Appalachian oak-hickory-pine forests) fire-return intervals (see the Fire Regime Table). Follicles dry, split, and release 3 to 5 seeds (review by ). In the forest habitat, Populus x canescens, Tradescantia fluminensis and Vinca major can be considered outliers of one particular plot near the ruins of Paradise, a settlement in Newlands Forest dating to the 18th century. The following descriptions cover characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and are not meant for
IMPACTS AND CONTROL:
In southwestern Georgia, common periwinkle was a rare species in open forests containing oaks, hickories, shortleaf pine, loblolly pine, and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) . It is not known what type of fire regime periwinkles are best adapted to. Family: Apocynaceae . Annual rainfall is variable across the nonnative ranges of periwinkles. Few authors report climate data for sites with periwinkles; therefore, the climate data presented here may not represent climatic conditions throughout the nonnative ranges of periwinkles. Common periwinkle occurs in forest understories [9,32,37,40,60,67,88,112] including successional [17,28,32,47,67] and mature  forests. Vinca minor L., common periwinkle. Southeast:
), and oaks . Common periwinkle seeds are dispersed by ants in its native range [54,56]. For information on the use of prescribed fire to control this species, see
In southeastern Ohio, common periwinkle was a "frequent" species in mesic ravines, stream terraces, and
Common periwinkle infestation.
Periwinkle seedlings and small infestations may be easy to pull or dig out. In southeastern Ohio, common periwinkle occurred in grassy meadows along roadsides and in fields. As of 2008, periwinkles covered an estimated 29,254 acres (11,839 ha) across 12 southern states, with the majority of cover in Virginia (14, 419 acres (5835 ha)) . These are also found in lower Himalayan ranges in Asia. Bigleaf periwinkle occurs on soils derived from granite, gneiss, or schist in Georgia .
Periwinkle seeds are naked
Common periwinkle was planted for erosion control near Washington, DC . It was restricted to the "shade zone" provided by a riparian tree canopy dominated by Arizona sycamore (Gebow 2009 personal communication ). Periwinkles are valued medicinal herbs (reviews by [7,81]), and common periwinkle is considered an aphrodisiac (review by ). where common periwinkle cover was removed, there was increased survival of native tree seedlings. establishment and spread by maintaining "healthy" natural communities [69,89] (e.g., avoid road building in wildlands ) and by monitoring several times each year . Because most periwinkle reproduction occurs through vegetative spread, the simplest way to prevent future periwinkle establishment
Numerous periwinkle cultivars are available [30,66]. native vegetation throughout its nonnative range ([2,27,29,31], reviews by [7,10,111]), and is particularly problematic to
Like other non-native creepers, Vinca sprawls across the ground, forming large patches that blanket the Earth, pushing out native herbaceous and woody species. Bigleaf periwinkle has replaced
If the caudices are not killed, periwinkles may sprout from their caudices after fire. The genus Vinca includes six species of plants, of which the ‘vinca minor’ and ‘vinca major’ are more commonly grown in the gardens as groundcover. The 40% reduction in bigleaf periwinkle cover was not high enough for the authors to recommend this control method . ), and clover (Trifolium spp.). Control of periwinkles may be complicated by the ability of stems to root easily when nodes touch the ground (review by ). Given their ability to spread with the dumping of yard waste ([17,37], review by ), it is likely that periwinkles establish from plant fragments. One review states that common periwinkle does not spread to new areas by seed in its nonnative range .
Vinca major L. Common Name: Blue periwinkle: Status: Not declared noxious in Victoria. The genus name probably derives from the Latin word vincire, meaning bind, as the long creeping vines were used to prepare garlands. ), Asiatic day-flower (Commelina communis), and Japanese wisteria (Wisteria floribunda) under a sparse canopy of plumleaf crab apple (Malus prunifolia) and northern red oak . Poor seed reproduction
Bigleaf periwinkle may spread with "great rapidity" (review by ). common periwinkle's lack of an active dispersal mechanism . Climate:
Photo by Katharine Stone, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Researchers in Belgium looked at the spread of common periwinkle from forest relicts into establishing forests ranging from approximately 20 to 120 years old. Common canopy trees included American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white oak, northern red oak, southern red oak, chestnut oak (Q. prinus), black oak (Q. velutina), yellow-poplar, bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis), pignut hickory (C. glabra), and mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa) . up to 2 inches (5 cm) long . Bigleaf periwinkle seedlings were found in riparian areas in California , though seedlings are rarely found in the field (review by ). Botanical description:
Common periwinkle occurs on sites with mean daily temperatures in January as low as -7.8 °F (-22.1 °C) in New York , and in July as high as 82.2 °F (27.9 °C) in southwestern Georgia . Keys for identification are available (e.g., for bigleaf periwinkle: [29,42,51,78,113]; for common periwinkle: [29,42,78,97,113]). Vinca major is a perennial, evergreen herb with erect flowering stems (0.25-0.5m long) and trailing non-flowering stems (1m long) that roots at the node. Both bigleaf ([39,114], review by ) and common  periwinkle are damaged by some herbicides. Common periwinkle generally flowers from between March and June depending on location [4,29,42,45,50,78,97]. Near Washington, DC, common periwinkle occurred but was not particularly problematic in deciduous forests and along forest edges. Periwinkles form mats and extensive infestations even under forest canopies (, review by ). See the Weed control methods handbook  for considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals. Documentation of common periwinkle seedlings was not found in the literature as of 2009. Managers in the Huachuca Mountains were concerned that the native soil seed bank could be disrupted during attempts to remove bigleaf periwinkle, though the lack of bigleaf periwinkle in the soil seed bank was encouraging . Cold weather may damage bigleaf periwinkle (review by ), though one population in Ohio survived 2 of "the most severe winters of the past century, those of 1976 to 1977 and 1977 to 1978"
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